An organism in which the two copies of the gene are identical is called homozygous in that gene. An organism with two different alleles of the genes is called heterozygous.
Homozygous organisms have two identical alleles for a trait. They may have two copies of dominant alleles or two copies of the recessive allele of a gene. For example, both RR and rr are homozygous genotypes. However, a heterozygous or hybrid genotype has one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene. Here, "Rr" genotype would be an example of hybrid or heterozygous genotype.
The obvious traits in living organisms are usually controlled by molecular structures called GENES. A gene exists in two contrasting forms called ALLELES. Based on this, there are two different alleles for two different traits in a gene.
An organism that contains the same/identical alleles for a particular trait is said to be genotypically HOMOZYGOUS while an organism that possesses two different alleles for a particular trait is said to be HETEROZYGOUS.
For example, height trait controlled by a single gene that possesses two alleles: T for tallness and t for shortness. An organism that has two identical alleles e.g TT and tt is said to be homozygous for that trait while an organism that possesses Tt is heterozygous.
Homo means same
When we have organisms that have two different alleles for any trait, however, we will call them heterozygous.
Dominant in this case refers to the way how certain traits get passed down generations.
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